Mongolia up to 1990


Theocratic Mongolia 

The nobles and religious dignitaries and high ranking officials of Mongolia attempted to restore the independence of Mongolia and to get rid of the influence of the Chin Dynasty for many years. And in order to implement their noble task at the end of the 1890’s they have decided to get assistance from Czarist Russia, their northern neighbour. But Czarist Russia did not accept their request. Knowing that many nobles headed by Bogd Gegeen (Saint), the Grand /head/ Lama were greatly opposed to the oppression of the Chin Dynasty some nobles from the inner Mongolia came to the Ikh /Great/ Kuree (Then the capital of Mongolia, present Ulaanbaatar) in 1911 and had an audience with Bogd Gegeen (He was the head of the state as Khaan or King and at the same time head of religion) and presented their plan to restore the independence of Mongolia.

By this time prince Ts. Khanddorj, G.Chagdarjav Khan (Governor) of Tusheet Khan aimag and Ikh (Honourable) Lama G.Tserenchimed have initiated to get assistance from Russia to restore the independence of Mongolia. This initiative was accepted and approved by Bogd Gegeen and the Grand Lama then a delegation was sent to Russia. The delegation has met several Russian ministers and following consultations the Russians have agreed to take a decision on Mongolia. The Russian authorities advised the Mongolian delegation that there was no possibility to secede from the Chin Dynasty therefore, they would inform Peking to stop the new government policy. It was also promised that if the Manchu would conduct a massacre against Mongolians the Russians would defend Mongolia.

Having received such reply from the Russian Government and the Mongolian delegation felt wretched and presented a petition again to the Government of Russia. They have emphasized the repression the Manchu government exercised over the inner Mongolians and requested to send a powerful military force to Mongolia. It was the consideration of the Russian Government that the restoration of the independence of Mongolia would be advantageous for Russia. But the Russian Government did not give a positive answer. In order to keep secret their visit to Russia the members of the Mongolian delegation came back to Mongolia one by one. The Mongolian nobles and top lamas (religious dignitaries) gathered on November 28,1911 and after consultation they made a conclusion that the Manchu Empire would collapse.

They have informed Bogd Gegeen, the Grand Lama about it and urged him to declare the independence of Mongolia. The Bogd, Grand lama accepted the conclusion of the nobles and top lamas and advised them to take immediate action. So on November 30, 1911 a provisional government was formed. G.Chagdarjav Khan (Governor) of Tusheet Khan aimag was appointed as head of the government. There were seven members in the provisional government including prince Ts.Khanddorj and G.Tserenchimed. The provisional government seized the opportunity of the national liberation movement waged in the country to drive out the Manchu vice-roy from Mongolia in order to prepare for restoring its independence. The provisional government gathered Mongol soldiers and brought them to Ikh Kuree at the end of 1911. After the Manchu vice-roy was driven out from Ikh Kuree (the capital) the national liberation movement gained momentum. Zasagt Khan and Sain Noyon gathered soldiers in order to drive out the Manchu vice-roy and his army from the Zavkhan province center-Uliyastai which was another important Manchu administrative post. In the beginning of 1912 Uliyastai was liberated.

There was another Manchu vice-roy who was responsible for the western frontiers in Khovd-center of Khovd province. Khovd was liberated by military force in the summer of 1912. As a result of these operations conditions have been created to get rid of the Manchu rule. In these circumstances Bogd Javjandamba has acceded to the throne and was elevated to the monarch of Mongolia. He declared the independence of Mongolia on December 29, 1911. On this occasion a very solemn ceremony was held. At that time it was possible to extend the territory of Mongolia from the Khyangan mountains in the east to the Altai mountains in the west and from the great wall of China in the south to the Russian border in the north. At the start of 1912 the Chinese overthrew the Manchu rule and the Chinese Republic was set up. A person called da Juntan Yan-Shi-Kai has become the president of the new Republic. This Republic did not recognize the independence of Mongolia and urged the Mongolians to accept Chinese rule. Mongolia resolutely opposed the Chinese demand. Then the Chinese planned to use force against Mongolia and started to encroach upon the southern border of Mongolia. The government of Mongolia gathered more military force and sent them to counter the Chinese.

The Mongolian force was few. But they had good experience of 2-3 years fighting. In November 1913 the Chinese Republic and the Czarist Russia concluded a secret agreement and issued a declaration which termed that "Outer Mongolia is autonomous under Chinese control". Prior to this in 1912 Mongolia and Russia signed an agreement. According to this agreement from the name of "Outer Mongolia" the word "Outer" was dropped and the country was called just Mongolia. Both sides agreed to explain that Mongolians could term Mongolia is independent and Russians claim Mongolia is autonomous. This agreement was not in the full interest of Mongolia. But the fact itself that the conclusion of the agreement with the foreign power was significant for Mongolia. Both China and Russia were perspicuous that they wanted to keep Mongolia under their control. Subsequent to this Russia-China-Mongolia Kyagt (Mongolia-Russia forntier town) tripartite talk started in the autumn of 1914 and ended in the spring of 1914. The delegates of the three countries came with different views to the Kyagt talk. The Chinese delegation wanted to eliminate the autonomous status of Mongolia and make it just one region of China. The Czarist Russian delegation wanted to make Mongolia autonomous. The delegation of Mongolia wanted the country to be recognized as independent Mongolia. The tripartite Kyagt talk enforced Mongolia as autonomous under China and inner Mongolia as part of China. So the unity of Mongolia was split into two parts. Allthough theocratic Mongolia pursued an independent policy and existed as an independent state. 

Continue to the next page, The Events of Mongolia in 1921.