Mongolia from the 17th to the 19th Centuries

At the end of the 15th century the Manchu gained momentum in east Asia. It was a militaristic and feudalistic State by its nature. As soon as they became powerful they started their aggressive and expansionist policy against the Chinese, the Mongols and the Koreans. It was a period of a tragedy which recurred in the history of the Asia. The Manchu subjugated Mongolia through three phases. Ligden(1604-1634) grandson of the eldest son of the Batu-Mongke dayan Khaan-the last direct descent of the Chinggis Khaan, was subdued. The Manchu King smashed up the Tsahar State in 1636.

Then they took Inner Mongolia under their control. The Manchu occupants used the treason of some Chinese officials and occupied Peking in 1644. They thus laid the foundation to establish Ching Dynasty and started the partial occupation of China. This partial occupation made it difficult for the Mongolians to fight against the Manchu. The Manchu occupants instigated the Khalkhi Mongols and the Oiryid Mongols. This instigation precipitated the Mongolians into the war in 1688. As the result of the war the Khalkhi feudals were greatly defeated. The Undurgegen Zanabazar, head of Mongolian yellow sect of the Buddhism, took initiatives to convene the joint session of the inner and outer Mongolian feudals.

It took place and decided to be under the protection of the Manchu State. It was the second period of the Manchu occupation of Mongolia. In the wake of it, the target of the Manchu was to subjugate the Oiryid Mongolia or western Mongolia. Galdang Boshigt(1671-1697), the last Khan of the Oiriad Mongolia valiantly fought against the Manchu for many years. But he was completely defeated in 1696 with the Manchu well armed and outnumbered soldiers. So all Mongolians came under the Manchu occupation, and remained up to 1911.

The Ching Dynasty introduced its jurisdiction and Mongols were subjected to the Manchu law. It did not destroy the structure of the aimag assemblies and took them under its control. It allowed the convening of sessions of the aimag assemblies every three years under the supervision of the Manchu. In 1733, the amount of the salaries of the Mongol nobles was fixed. In 1691 K’ang-Hsi (1662-1722) decreed some families be in subordinate position to the administrative and non-administrative nobles. The government of the Manchu allowed only four aimags and increased the numbers of banners.

In 1655 there were eight banners in the Khalkhi Mongolia, but in 1755 there were 74 banners. One banner had two somons. It was a fragmentation policy. The exploitation of the Mongolians precipitated the Mongols to fight against the Manchu. The rebellion of Mongolia headed by Prince Amarsanaa from the Oiryid Mongolia started and continued from 1755 to 1758.

The government of the Manchu sent many soldiers and very brutally suppressed the rebellion. They killed myriads of western Mongols. The Ching State pursued a dual policy using the yellow sect of Buddhism. First of all the Manchu contrived to prevent the influence of Bogda, Grand lama, which might unite all the Mongols to gain strength. Under the Manchu rule the ordinary Mongolian people were encumbered with heavy pressures. Every civilian became subjects of nobles and payed tributes. They were drafted to the army and served in the horse relay post and boundary offices. They were unable to increase their own domestic animals and products, for they were engaged in the interests of the nobles.

The Chinese traders bought the raw materials of animal origin from the Mongolians at a cheap price and sold theirs at a high cost. They lent money with interest. The most baneful policy was to prevent Russian influence over Mongolia. But the government of the Manchu did not make a change in its policy for many years. So many pressing problems were to be handled. The Manchu King understood the importance of reform and ordered his officials to draft up a new policy. Many documents were drawn up according to the order of the Manchu King. Among these documents there were many points concerning Mongolia. They were recorded as new government policy in the history of China.

Continue to the next page, Mongolia up to 1990.