The events of Mongolia in 1921 

The first world war that continued in 1914-1918 exercised an influence upon the destiny of Mongolia. Furthermore, communists headed by V.Lenin took power of Russia in 1917. It precipitated deep political crises in Russia. The Russian involvement in Mongolia slackened. The Japanese took measures to develop influence upon Mongolia. The Japanese suggested some Mongol nobles and the Czarist Russian general G.Semenov who disliked the new government of Russia and was in exile to form pan-Mongolia. So G.Semenov gathered some Buriad people at Daur village in the vicinity of the Chita town and convened a special conference. This conference announced the formation of the pan Mongolia confederation consisting of inner and outer Mongolia, Barga and Buriad Mongolia. Mongolia did not participate in this conference.

The Russian federation and the Chinese Republic both opposed this conference and G.Semenov. It was inevitable that a strong Japanese military base would be set up in Mongolia if pan-Mongolia was be formed. So the Russian federation issued statement to the Mongolia and the Chinese Republic. It said that Russia was ready to abolish the Kyagt tripartite agreement of 1915 if Mongolia intended to support the formation of pan-Mongolia. The government of Mongolia protested against the decision of the Daur conference and did not want to contact with G.Semenov in any form.

The Japanese plan to form pan Mongolia failed. Soon after it the Chinese republic started its policy to eliminate the autonomy of Mongolia. It had two purposes-not to bring the influence of Russian Revolution into Mongolia and not to give Mongolia to Russia. The Chinese deployed many Chinese soldiers to the Jikhe Kuree. Chinese general Hsu Shu-Chang, commissioner for north-west frontiers, arrived from Peking to the Jikhe-Kuree, and urged to abolish the autonomy at the volunteer base. The prime minister, ministers and vice ministers signed the document so called to abolish the autonomy, on the November 17,1919. The independence declared in 1911 was frustrated. The Mongolian people were opposed to this Chinese atrocity and were organised to fight against the foreign aggressors.

There were two underground groups working against China. They were interested in getting contact with the new government in Russia and assistance from them. They sent in their several delegates to Russia. Their approaches were considered as correct. The two underground groups met on the June 26, 1920 and set up the people’s party of Mongolia. The leaders of those groups were D.Sukhbaatar, D.Bodoo, S.Danzan and others. D. Sukhbaatar was one of the outstanding leaders who participated in the national revolution of 1921 and setting up the people’s government. He was the founder of the people’s army of Mongolia. The Mongolian patriots headed by D.Sukh-Baatar played a very crucial role in liberating Mongolia from the foreign occupants, in 1919-1921.

The soldiers of the peoples’s army headed by D.Sukh-Baatar came to liberate the Jikhe-Kuree/present Ulaan-Baatar/ from the Baron Ungern on the July 6,1921. The force of the white guard was not completely smashed up. In the middle of 1922 the whole territory of Mongolia was totally liberated. The struggle of the Mongolian patriots against the foreign occupants turned into a national revolution to change Mongolian society. As soon as the Jikhe Kuree was liberated there was the mass meeting, which elevated the Bogda Javjandamba to the throne with limited power and proclaimed the people’s government. Then the new government was set up. 

Continue to the next page, Mongolia up to 1945.