Mongolia after 1945 

There were great obstacles resulting from the transfer to peaceful circumstances. The number of animal population was reduced by about 6 million during the war period. The war wasted a lot of material wealth and human resources. Mongolia lacked man power and resources to reform its industry and agriculture. After 1947 Mongolia devised a longterm plan to develop agriculture and culture. It was a copy of the Soviet five year plan pattern based on the yearly plan started from 1941.

The objectives of the first five year plan (1948-1952) were to increase production power, to strengthen cooperatives and improve people’s well-being. In the middle of 1950s the Mongolian Revolutionary Party considered that it was impossible to build socialism in conditions where private property prevailed and decided to socialise animal farmers and private craftsmen. The 13th Congress of the Mongolian Revolutionary Party held in the March of 1958 considered to make a new step in the process of socialisation. 99.7 per cent of the total animal farmers joined the negdel (cooperatives).

This idea issued from the policy to expedite socialism in this country. The Mongolian Revolutionary Party concluded that as soon as the animal farmers and private craftsmen were socialised, the economic structure of the Mongolia underwent change and the task of transforming Mongolia into a socialist country was achieved. Because of it the constitution of the country was renewed at the session of the great Khural of the Mongolian People’s Republic, in the July of 1960. This renewed constitution said that the aim of the Mongolian People’s Republic was to perfect socialism and develop communism.

This constitution legalised one party leadership, only one property, only one class prevailance and one ideology in the society of Mongolia. The constitution stipulated that the guiding force of the State and the society of the Mongolian People’s Republic would be the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party which orientated itself with all winning and inspiring Marxist and Leninist theory. The Mongolian People’s Republic as an integral part of the Socialist community started as external and internal policy through coordination with the Soviet Union and other socialist countries, since the 1960s.

There was a split in the socialist camp. Ideological conflict broke out between the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China. Because of this Mongolia built its army again. It was dismantled in 1950. From the strategy that Mongolia sided with the Soviet Union, Mongolia allowed the presence of the Soviet soldiers on its territory. The reason for this was that the Chinese side massed on the border of the Mongolia and China. The XXI Congress of the Soviet Communist Party concluded that all socialist countries could usher in communism at the same time. It was an abstract conclusion. The Mongolian People’s Republic became the first Asian member of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance. As a full-fledged member of the organisation Mongolia got various economic assistance. Mongolian export to the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance increased by 3.7% between 1970-1980.

The 17th Congress of the Mongolian Revolutionary Party put forward "A new theoretical concept to live in a socialist way" in all the fields of social life, not only in the economy within the socialist integration in 1976. Since 1980s the growth of the production slowed down. The average annual growth of the national income between 1960-1980 was 6.3%. This index became 3.8% and decreased since 1980. Socialism developed equality, culture and health care, but did not meet the material demands of society members.

During the period of socialism private property, labour and profit making for private purpose were restricted. But the Soviet type of socialism came to stagnancy. The Mongolians accepted what the Soviets said as veracity without verification. But we can not forget the worthy renderence of Soviet assistance. But we supplied the Soviets with the materials of animal husbandry and mining which the Soviets needed too. Our foreign trade with the Soviets was always deficient and our debt to the Soviets accrued. 84 per cent of foreign trade turn-over was with the Soviet Union.

The industries built by the Soviets were too big for Mongolia and their equipment was old, in the modern sense they were not lucrative. In such circumstances Mongolians were compelled to turn a careful eye to the situation, in which Mongolia was trusty and obedient and restricted in foreign relations. In 1986 democracy in the Soviet Union started from the top. This created new circumstances for Mongolia. It meant that due to the new circumstances Mongolia was able to get contact with any other countries without consultation with the Soviet Union. At that period the socialist wealth common collapsed, and the Mongolian link to it slackened. The aid from the socialist countries stopped.

Mongolia was impelled to go along its own way of development as an independent country. The international arena there was the transition from confrontation to transition. It was a favourable climate for undergoing changes in Mongolia. 

Continue to the next page, Mongolia along the road of democracy.