Mongolia from the 14th to the 16th Centuries

The Mongol Empire declined at the end of the 14th century. Particularly the Yuan Dynasty came to the brink of collapse. The Golden Horde in Russia died out. But the formation of the Mongol Empire was a confederation. It controlled the territory that stretched up to the Khiangan mountains in the east, Tngri mountain in the north, up stream of the Irtish and Enisei rivers, and the great wall of China in the south.

The last Emperor of the Yan Dynasty was Togugan Timor. After him, the soldiers of Ming Dynasty of China attacked Mongolia several times in 1370-1380’s. At the beginning of 1400’s, when the Khans of Central and Eastern Mongolia fought with weapons against the soldiers of the Ming Dynasty, the feudals of inner Mongolia joined the Chinese and noblemen of western or Oiryid Mongols, accepted titles and inducements of the Chinese and became Chinese allies. The noblemen of the Oiryid Mongols instigated by the Ming Dynasty started a war against Eastern Mongolia in 1409. And it divided Mongolia into two separate parts indeed.

This was the start of Mongolian feudal fragmentation. The Ming Dynasty exerted an influence upon inner Mongolia. Then they used inner Mongolia as a buffer against other Mongolians. After it the Ming Dynasty exerted influence upon the Oiryid Mongols and used them against the Central and Eastern Mongols. The Oiryid Mongols defeated the Eastern Mongols. Then the Ming Dynasty took a cautious approach to the Oiryid Mongols were to get strong and support the noblemen of Eastern Mongolia in 1413-1414. The Eastern Mongols defeated the Western Mongols.

In such a manner Mongols weakened, but as the western Mongols grew strong the western Mongol nobleman Taisung controlled the whole of Mongolia in the middle of 1430. This unity continued up to 1456. After it, Dayan Khan (1464-1543) acceded to the throne in 1470 and attempted to reunite all the Mongols. It was the second attempt to stop the fragmentation of Mongols. Dayan Khan started to control most leading noblemen of Mongols, and sent his envoy to the Ming Dynasty, and established good relations. It seemed that this relationship declined from the 1500’s. After the death of Dayan Khan in 1543. Mongols again started fragmenting. Dayan Khan’s given name was Batumongke.

His grandson Altan Khan /1507-1582/ was ruling the Khalkha Mongolia. He pursued a policy to conquer and occupy Western Mongolia and Khukhe nuur(the blue lake areas) and penetrate into Tibet and wanted to be Khan of all Mongols. Altan Khan, first of all, tried to maintain normal relations and trade with China. He continued his normalisation policy with China, and achieved it by concluding a treaty of friendship and trade with China in 1551. The Khanates, comparatively independent within the Mongol Empire, on one hand gave an impetus to their economic development and on the other hand their competition caused harm to national unity and cohesion by contributing to the fragmentation and decline of the defensive forces. After the death of Altan Khan there was a power struggle. As a consequence they were separated into many petty Kingdoms.

Continue to the next page, Mongolia from the 17th to the 19th centuries.